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Mrs. M. V. Longley: ``Writing Machines'', Proceedings of the First Annual International Congress of Shorthand Writers, pp.14-16 (August 31, 1882).

"The next paper will be upon the subject of


by Mrs. M. V. Longley, of Cincinnati."

Mrs. M. V. Longley said:

"So much has been said about type-writers and type-writing in your conventions and periodicals, that I scarcely know what there is left for me to say.

I have seen a person write with the two index fingers, using them for both printing and spacing, but such an one would not expect to get a position as type-writing clerk.

Mrs. M. V. Longley: Type-Writer Lessons for the Use of Teachers and Learners Adapted to Remington's Perfected Type-Writers, Cincinnati (1882).

In other cases the persevering owner, or clerk, is plodding along as best he can, using but one or two fingers of each hand, instead of all the fingers and a thumb,

Mrs. M. V. Longley: Caligraph Lessons for the Use of Teachers and Learners Designed to Develop Accurate and Reliable Operators, Cincinnati (1882).

Until the present time, except in large cities, each person owning or using one of these instruments has had to gain this experience for himself by slow and uncertain steps, plodding along as best he can, emplying but one or two fingers of each hand, instead of utilizing all as piano-players do.

F. E. McGurrin: "How McGurrin Fingers the Typewriter", The Phonographic World, Vol.4, No.5 (January 1889), pp.90-91.

There being ten diagonal rows of keys, five for each hand, and only four fingers, the duty of taking care of the extra row is placed upon the first and second fingers of each hand, they being the best fingers for use ordinarily, and consequently the fourth diagonal row from the outside is to be taken care of by those two fingers in common, the one being selected which is most convenient in the particular word to be written.

The principal exceptions to the above rule are two: First, where it would require two successive keys to be struck by the same finger; in which case the next most convenient finger is to be used. Second, where it would necessitate turning the hand outward, i. e., so that the thumb would be brought upward overthe keys, instead of downward in front of the machine.

The principal advantages of this system of fingering over the one-finger system are: First, by distributing the labor among eight fingers, there is less fatigue to each finger. Second, each finger, having but one-fourth of the labor to perform, sooner acquires the faculty of doing the work mechanically, thus producing greater speed with less mental labor or liability to error. Third, it enables the operator to run the machine without looking at the key-board.

As to whether this system of fingering permits of higher speed than the one-finger system, would seem to be questionable in view of the contests during the past summer, in which the two systems were brought into direct competition. The writer believes that Miss Orr's marvelous speed was achieved, not by reason of the system which she used, but in spite of it, and that if she had used the system mentioned above, her speed would have been much greater than it was. She is a lady apparently well adapted to rapid typewriting, and has adopted it as her sole profession. The writer on the other hand, is not naturally adapted to it, has no taste for it, and has pursued it merely as an incident to another profession. It is quite certain, therefore, that any ordinary person, by the use of this system, can with practice, equal any speed which has been reached thus far; and, if naturally adapted to it, can far exceed it.

F. E. McGurrin: "Shift-key vs. Double Key-board Typewriters", The Phonographic World, Vol.4, No.6 (February 1889), p.115.

"The question, which method of capitalizing, that of the shift-key, as used on the Remington typewriter, or that of the double key-board, as used on the caligraph, is more conducive to speed, is one worthy of careful consideration. The two methods are diametrically opposed. In the former case, te labor of capitalizing is put entirely upon the fingers, by necessitating an extra, purely mechanical stroke to shift the paper, while in the latter case the labor is put entirely on the mind, by necessitating the keeping track of double the number of keys.

The question must be considered in reference to speed in actual work, (which includes accuracy) for it is poor consolation to a tired operator at the end of a day's work to know that he can writer on his machine "Chippy get your hair cut" an incredible number of times in five minutes, if another operator, next to him, and using another style of machine, has quit work two hours before after doing the same amount of work which the former has done, by reason of the superiority of the latter's machine in practical work.

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気になりElias Longley文書など in QPA やらトーリーやら

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  • Elias Longley: "Correct Typewriter Fingering", The Phonographic World, Vol.4, No.5 (January 1889), pp.102-103.


# Elias Longley: "Dan Brown's Typewriter Fingering", The Phonographic Magazine, Vol.X, No.2 (January 15, 1896), pp.19-20.


"Now is the time to try something true."

The History of Touch Typewriting, Wyckoff Seamans & Benedict, New York (1900).


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